Explaining neuroscience in ongoing Instagram video series: A Q&A

At the beginning of the year, Stanford neuroscientist Andrew Huberman, PhD, pledged to post on Instagram one-minute educational videos about neuroscience for an entire year. Since a third of his regular followers come from Spanish-speaking countries, he posts them in both English and Spanish. We spoke soon after he launched the project. And now that half the year is over, I checked in with him about his New Year’s resolution.

How is your Instagram project going?

“It’s going great. I haven’t kept up with the frequency of posts that I initially set out to do, but it’s been relatively steady. The account has grown to about 13,500 followers and there is a lot of engagement. They ask great questions and the vast majority of comments indicate to me that people understand and appreciate the content. I’m really grateful for my followers. Everyone’s time is valuable and the fact that they comment and seem to enjoy the content is gratifying.”

What have you learned?

“The feedback informed me that 60 seconds of information is a lot for some people, especially if the topic requires new terms. That was surprising. So I have opted to do shorter 45-second videos and those get double or more views and reposts. I also have started posting images and videos of brains and such with ‘voice over’ content. It’s more work to produce, but people seem to like that more than the ‘professor talking’ videos.

I still get the ‘you need to blink more!’ comments, but fortunately that has tapered off. My Spanish is also getting better but I’m still not fluent. Neural plasticity takes time but I’ll get there.”

What is your favorite video so far?

“People naturally like the videos that provide something actionable for their health and well-being. The brief series on light and circadian rhythms was especially popular, as well as the one on how looking at the blue light from your cell phone in the middle of the night can potentially alter sleep and mood. I particularly enjoyed making that post since it combined vision science and mental health, which is one of my lab’s main focuses.”

What are you planning for the rest of the year?

“I’m kicking off some longer content through the Instagram TV format, which will allow people who want more in-depth information to get that. I’m also helping The Society for Neuroscience get their message out about their annual meeting. Other than that, I’m just going to keep grinding away at delivering what I think is interesting neuroscience to people that would otherwise not hear about it.”

Is it fun or an obligation at this point?

“There are days where other things take priority of course — research, teaching and caring for my bulldog Costello — but I have to do it anyway since I promised I’d post. However, it’s always fun once I get started. If only I could get Costello to fill in for me when I get busy…”

This is a reposting of my Scope story, courtesy of Stanford School of Medicine.

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Simplified analysis method could lead to improved prosthetics, a Stanford study suggests

Brain-machine interfaces (BMI) are an emerging field at the intersection of neuroscience and engineering that may improve the quality of life for amputees and individuals with paralysis. These patients are unable to get signals from their motor cortex — the part of the brain that normally controls movement — to their muscles.

Researchers are overcoming this disconnect by implanting in the brain small electrode arrays, which measure and decode the electrical activity of neurons in the motor cortex. The sensors’ electrical signals are transmitted via a cable to a computer and then translated into commands that control a computer cursor or prosthetic limb. Someday, scientists also hope to eliminate the cable, using wireless brain sensors to control prosthetics.

In order to realize this dream, however, they need to improve both the brain sensors and the algorithms used to decode the neural signals. Stanford electrical engineer Krishna Shenoy, PhD, and his collaborators are tackling this algorithm challenge, as described in a recent paper in Neuron.

Currently, most neuroscientists process their BMI data looking for “spikes” of electrical activity from individual neurons. But this process requires time-consuming manual or computationally-intense automatic data sorting, which are both prone to errors.

Manual data sorting will also become unrealistic for future technologies, which are expected to record thousands to millions of electrode channels compared to the several hundred channels recorded by today’s state-of-the-art sensors. For example, a dataset composed of 1,000 channels could take over 100 hours to hand sort, the paper says. In addition, neuroscientists would like to measure a greater brain volume for longer durations.

So, how can they decode all of this data?

Shenoy suggests simplifying the data analysis by eliminating spike sorting for applications that depend on the activity of neural populations rather than single neurons — such as brain-machine interfaces for prosthetics.

In their new study, the Stanford team investigated whether eliminating this spike sorting step distorted BMI data. Turning to statistics, they developed an analysis method that retains accuracy while extracting information from groups rather than individual neurons. Using experimental data from three previous animal studies, they demonstrated that their algorithms could accurately decode neural activity with minimal distortion — even when each BMI electrode channel measured several neurons. They also validated these experimental results with theory.

 “This study has a bit of a hopeful message in that observing activity in the brain turns out to be easier than we initially expected,” says Shenoy in a recent Stanford Engineering news release. The researchers hope their work will guide the design and use of new low-power, higher-density devices for clinical applications since their simplified analysis method reduces the storage and processing requirements.

This is a reposting of my Scope blog story, courtesy of Stanford School of Medicine.

Photo by geralt.